Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to have higher rates of initial treatment failure, relapse and mortality than in those without HIV-1 infection. Co-infection of VL and HIV-1 usually results in death by the end of treatment in previously reported cases in China. Here we report on a patient with VL and HIV-1 co-infection who received a high dose and an extended course of sodium stibogluconate treatment in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This treatment regimen resulted in good control of VL and HIV-1 infection, while the conventional protocol of sodium stibogluconate treatment was not able to prevent multiple VL relapses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first surviving case of VL and HIV-1 co-infection with this particular treatment regimen in China.